Stage 1 Hope - Infant stage Social environment caringstable or erratic and threatening. Mistrust - Does the child believe its caregivers to be reliable? Does he environment foster hope or mistrust? Child becomes trusting, hopeful in life or frightened, insecure and mistrustful.
Mistrust Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen? Erikson's first psychosocial crisis occurs during the first year or so of life like Freud's oral stage of psychosexual development.
The crisis is one of trust vs. During this stage, the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live. To resolve these feelings of uncertainty, the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care. If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened.
Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of hope. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can have hope that as new crises arise, there is a real possibility that other people will be there as a source of support.
Failing to acquire the virtue of hope will lead to the development of Erik eriksons theory on aging.
For example, if the care has been harsh or inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant will develop a sense of mistrust and will not have confidence in the world around them or in their abilities to influence events. This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships.
It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them. Consistent with Erikson's views on the importance of trust, research by Bowlby and Ainsworth has outlined how the quality of the early experience of attachment can affect relationships with others in later life.
Shame and Doubt Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage of Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development.
This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately 3 years. The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile, and discovering that he or she has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys, etc.
Such skills illustrate the child's growing sense of independence and autonomy.
For example, during this stage children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.
Erikson states it is critical that parents allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities within an encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure. For example, rather than put on a child's clothes a supportive parent should have the patience to allow the child to try until they succeed or ask for assistance.
So, the parents need to encourage the child to become more independent while at the same time protecting the child so that constant failure is avoided. A delicate balance is required from the parent.
They must try not to do everything for the child, but if the child fails at a particular task they must not criticize the child for failures and accidents particularly when toilet training.
Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of will. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world.
If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteemand feel a sense of shame or doubt in their abilities.
Guilt Initiative versus guilt is the third stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. During the initiative versus guilt stage, children assert themselves more frequently.
Central to this stage is play, as it provides children with the opportunity to explore their interpersonal skills through initiating activities. Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions.
Conversely, if this tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others and will, therefore, remain followers, lacking in self-initiative.
The child takes initiatives which the parents will often try to stop in order to protect the child. The child will often overstep the mark in his forcefulness, and the danger is that the parents will tend to punish the child and restrict his initiatives too much.
It is at this stage that the child will begin to ask many questions as his thirst for knowledge grows. Too much guilt can make the child slow to interact with others and may inhibit their creativity.
Erik Erikson, who took a special interest in this final stage of life, Theories of Aging. Erik Erikson, Disengagement theory views aging as a process of mutual withdrawal in which older adults voluntarily slow down by retiring, as expected by society. Proponents of disengagement theory hold that mutual social withdrawal benefits both. Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Erik Eriksons Theory On Aging. An eight stage theory of identity and psychosocial development. Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud, explored three aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person from another, social/cultural identity (the collection of social roles a person might play) .
Some guilt is, of course, necessary; otherwise the child would not know how to exercise self-control or have a conscience. A healthy balance between initiative and guilt is important. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of purpose. Inferiority Erikson's fourth psychosocial crisis, involving industry vs.
Children are at the stage where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to do things on their own.Erik Erikson’s theories of development are among some of the best-known theories regarding aging and developing.
Erikson divided the stages of life into eight categories: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair. Erik Erikson, who took a special interest in this final stage of life, Theories of Aging.
Erik Erikson, Disengagement theory views aging as a process of mutual withdrawal in which older adults voluntarily slow down by retiring, as expected by society. Proponents of disengagement theory hold that mutual social withdrawal benefits both. According to Erik Erikson's theory on aging, what is the final hurdle that most people who reach old age must overcome?
medical ailments trivialized Which is a social issue that many elderly females discover they are victims of? Erik Homburger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June – 12 May ) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of .
erikson's psychosocial development theory erik erikson's psychosocial crisis life cycle model - the eight stages of human erik erikson's psychosocial theory overview Erikson's psychosocial theory is widely and highly regarded.
As with any Eriksons' work is as relevant today as when he first outlined. Erik Homburger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June – 12 May ) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of .