August 24, First decision:
Multiple linear regression analysis Multiple linear regression model analysis for the total GLP-1 was applied to adjust for the possible confounding factors. Discussion The release of GLP-1following oral administration of nutrients carbohydrates and lipids in particular has two overlapping phases.
Until now, there have been several controversies about the mechanisms of the early phase release. Some suggested that just after administration although nutrients are far away from the duodenum, GLP-1 as an intestinal signal material has a prior stimulatory effect on insulin secretion 1 Other studies suggested that, since the majority of the L cells lie in both of the distal jejunum and the entire ileum, this phase of GLP-1 release is likely to be mediated by hormones e.
The second phase of prolonged secretion may be concerned with the direct actions on the luminal contents by the L cells in distal jejunum and ileum 110 In recent years, a few investigators have illustrated that there are numerous high-affinity GLP-1 binding receptors expressing on the insulin sensitive peripheral tissues e.
Several evidences also indicated that GLP-1 in those tissues may enhance their glucose utilizations for the inductions of lipid and glycogen synthesis. And the anabolic actions of GLP-1 are independent of insulin 12. These findings were comparable to some previous research 5 - 710 - 1519 But its specific role in process to type 2 diabetes is still unknown.
However, a few scholars pointed out recently that the GLP-1 levels were not reduced in patients with IGT or type 2 diabetes 16 - 18 Though the cause and the mechanism for this discrepancy are not clear now, the possible major factors for it may be: However, there was a complete classification of PD in this study.
Various durations of DM would lead to different stages of glucose metabolism disorders and complicated situations of GLP-1 secretion.
In the presenting study, the major focus was on the total GLP-1 release situation in the preliminary and initial stage of Chinese type 2 diabetes. So far, there is much less little information in this field.
Moreover, in some other large-sampled research, i. In most of the previous studies, the subjects had taken the hypoglycemic therapies 517 - However, many kinds of glucose-lowering medications have a positive effect on the GLP-1 release, such as metformin, thiazolidinedione and insulin etc 1718 In the presenting study, individuals with any anti-diabetic drug were excluded.
In addition, there may be some other factors that lead to the divergent results: And the data in our study just reflected the secretion situation at this period.
Previous research suggested that the decrement of GLP-1 secretion might be related to IR or its risk factors, too 18 Subsequently, this may form a vicious circle which could constantly aggravate the glucose metabolism disorder.
There were no detectable associations between the GLP-1 levels and ages, BMI or waist circumference as previous studies 17 It is possible that these general characteristics in our patients did not reach the sufficient ranges to influence GLP-1 secretion.
And the selections of various statistical methods may lead to the diversities, too. But the relevance between GLP-1 secretion and the genders was in conformity with the previous reports 17 The presenting study was lack of the information that could directly reflect the early phase of GLP-1 release since most subjects rejected to get blood collection at 15, 30 and 60 min during their OGTTs.
This was one limitation of this study. Another limitation is that the mixed meal tolerance tests for the evaluation of GLP-1 were not chosen for the study. These were also observed in the total 2hGLP-1 levels during a 75g oral glucose load.
Therefore, our results provide valuable information on the preventions and treatments options for Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. And finally, we appreciated the Fifth People's Hospital of Chengdu, too. Conflicts of Interest All authors declare that there is no conflict of interest among them, and no one receives any source of funding.
Am J Physiol-Cell Ph.
Holst JJ, Gromada J. Role of incretin hormones in the regulation of insulin secretion in diabetic and nondiabetic humans.
Am J Physiol-Endoc M. Vahl T, Alessio DD.Previous studies have revealed that berberine stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion from rat pancreatic β-cells and exhibits a dose-dependent increase in calcium mobilization in a GPRoverexpressed cell line, similar to oleic acid, a GPR40 agonist (84,85).
Therefore, it is possible that berberine is a novel agonist of GPR Methods: We have studied in primary cell cultures of human somatotroph adenomas whether IL-6 stimulates growth hormone secretion and whether intratumoral IL-6 is affected by various ILregulating factors.
Altered insulin secretion is linked to various disorders such as diabetes, hypoglycemic states, and cardiometabolic diseases. Fuel stimuli, including glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids, promote insulin granule exocytosis primarily via their metabolism .
Insulin like growth factors (IGFs) Insulin Other factors (less common or important, some cell specific) Secretion in first 2h of sleep insulin levels can stimulate IGF1R (weakly) Most likely is activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor).
Role of Hormones in Homeostasis Homeostasis is the constancy of the internal environment of growth and reproduction, body temperature, metabolism of glucose, water and slat balances, etc. Hormones also help to maintain the constancy of blood glucose level, heart rate and blood pressure.
%) and various phytochemicals along with flavonoids quercetin and, rutin a well-known it stimulates insulin secretion from rodent pancreatic b-cells and has been already reported . Another study showed that levels of serum insulin shoots.